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Author [ Biology ]
 

Dictionary of botanic terminology - index of names

     
  In biology an author is the person(s) (creator or source) to whom a work, a scientific name, or a nomenclatural act is attributed.  
     
Author - Authority - Authorship  [ Taxonomy ]
Latin: Auctoris/auctorum (author/authors)
Abbreviation: auct.
  auct. mult. [auctorum multorum (of many authors)]
  auct. non.  [auctorum non (of authors [but] not....), used for misapplied names, of a taxon which is other than that as published by]
     
  In taxonomy the author of the scientific name of a taxon is the person or team who first causes, creates and makes the name available by using it in a scientific publication with a description of the taxon to which it applies.  
  • The authority:  is name of the author of a taxonomic group  cited after the scientific name.
    In botany every plant family, genus, species, and subspecific taxon (subspecies, variety, or form) is associated with an authority, that is, the name of botanist who first described it.
     
  • The authorship:  is the author of a taxonomic name, the person who alone is responsible for both the name and for the conditions which make it available  i.e. the diagnosis etc.

AUTHOR CITATION

The name of the authority  for a taxon name, when cited, should follow the taxon name without any intervening marks or punctuation. Its citation is optional and may or may not be followed immediately by the year. Examples:-

A.... Smith 1970

Smith was the first person to validly publish the name A...., which he did in 1970.

A.... Smith in Jones 1970

Smith was the first person to validly publish the name A...., which he did within a publication by Jones in 1970.

A.... Smith 1970 ex Jones 1942

Smith was the first person to validly publish the name A.... in 1970, but which had formerly been used by Jones in 1942, but which he had never validly published.

A.... b.... (Smith) 1970 or A.... b.... (Smith 1970)

Smith was the first person to validly publish the species name b.... in 1970, but which at the time he put in combination  with another genus name.

A.... c.... (Smith) Jones

Smith was the first person to validly publish the species name c...., but which at that time he put in combination  with another genus name. Jones is responsible for the transfer of the species to genus A.....

A.... b.... [Smith]

The name was originally published anonymously but from external information the author is known to be Smith.

A.... Smith [1970]

Date of publication established solely from external evidence e.g. publisher's correspondence.

A.... Smith 1970 non Jones 1860 nec Brown 1967

The genus referred to is specifically that described by Smith 1970 and not those homonymous  genera described by Jones 1860 or Brown 1967.

A.... b.... Smith 1970 sensu Jones 1977

A.... b.... Smith : Jones

A.... b.... : Jones

These all mean that A.... b.... was originally published by Smith, but that this refers specifically to a subsequent, more restricted usage of the name i.e. as used by Jones (: may sometimes be given as ;).

A.... b.... auct. non Smith 1970

A.... b.... sensu auct. non Smith 1970

These refer to instances of the use of A.... b.... by all authors for a taxon which is other than that as published by Smith 1970.

A.... b.... Smith, partim Jones

A.... b.... Smith, emend. Jones

These both mean Smith originally published A.... b...., but later Jones further subdivided the species so that its diagnosis was more limited than that originally published by Smith.  Emended diagnosis.

In botany The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature does not use level groups. Names at every level can have distinct authorship. This extends up to class (or even to division), and down to variety, form and subform.

Example (Damask rose):

  • Division Magnoliophyta Cronquist, Takht. & Zimmerm. 1966
  • Subdivision Magnoliophytina Frohne & U. Jensen ex Reveal 1996
  • Class Magnoliopsida Adolphe Theodore Brongniart 1843
  • Subclass Rosidae Takht. 1967
  • Superorder Rosanae Takht. 1967
  • Order Rosales Perleb 1826
  • Suborder Rosineae Rchb. 1841
  • Family Rosaceae Adans. 1763
  • Subfam. Rosoideae Arn. 1832
  • Tribe Roseae Lam. & DC. 1806
  • Subtribe Rosinae J. Presl. 1846
  • Genus: Rosa L. 1753
  • Species Rosa damascena Miller 1804

List of  authors of cactus species

A

  • Abraham - Wolf-Rainer Abraham
  • Akers - John F. Akers (*1906)
  • Alexander - Edward Johnston Alexander (1901-1985)
  • E. F. Anderson - Edward Frederik Anderson (*1932)
  • Arechavaleta (Arechav) - José Arechavaleta (1838- 1912)
  • Arp - Gerald Kench Arp (*1947)
  • Audot - N. Audot (wrote 1845)

B

  • Backeberg (Backeb.) - Curt Backeberg (1894- 1966)
  • Baird - Ralph O. Baird (wrote 1931)
  • Barthlott - Wilhelm A. Barthlott (*1946)
  • B. W. Benson - Bernhard W. Benson (wrote 1957)
  • L. D. Benson - Layman David Benson (*1909)
  • A. Berger - Alwin Berger (1871-1931)
  • Bernger - Siegfried Bernger
  • Bertero - Carlo Luigi Guiseppe Bertero (1789-1831)
  • Bewer. - W. Bewerunge (wrote 1948)
  • Bigelow - Jacob Bigelow (1787-1879)
  • Böd. - Friedrich Bödecker (1867-1937)
  • Boissev. - Charles Hercules Boissevain (1893-1946)
  • Borg - John Borg (1873-1945)
  • Br. et R. - Britton, Nathaniel L. (1859-1934) and Rose, Joseph N. (1862-1928)
  • B. J. Br. - B. J. Brown (wrote 1985)
  • N. E. Br. - Nicholas Edward Brown (1849-1934)
  • Brandegee - Townshend Stith Brandegee (1843-1925)
  • K. Brandegee - Mary Katherine Brandegee (1844-1920)
  • F. H. Brandt - Fred H. Brandt (*1908)
  • P. J. Braun - Dr. Pierre J. Braun (1959-)
  • Bravo - Helia Bravo Hollis (*1903)
  • Brederoo - A. J. Brederoo (wrote 1971)
  • Bregmann - R. Bregmann (wrote 1986)
  • L. Bremer - L. Bremer (wrote 1977)
  • F. G. Buchenau - F. G. Buchenau (†1969)
  • Buchheim - Arno Fritz Günther Buchheim (*1924)
  • Buining - Albert Frederik Henrik Buining (1901-1980)
  • Buxbaum (Buxb.) - Franz Buxbaum (1900-1979)
  • Buining - Albert F. H. Buining, (1902-1976)
  • Büneker - Rudi Werner Büneker
  • Byles - Ronald Stewart Byles (wrote 1957)

C

  • Cullman - Willy Cullman
  • Cárdenas - Hermosa Martín Cárdenas (1899-1973)
  • A. Cast. - Alberto Castellanos (1896-1968)
  • Castañeda - M. Castañeda (wrote 1941)
  • Castetter - Edward Franklin Castetter (1896-1978)
  • Cav. - Antonio José Cavanilles (1745-1804)
  • Cels - August Louis Cels (1743-1806)
  • Cels - Cels (family of French gardeners in the 19th century)
  • Clover - Elzada Urseba Clover (1896-1980)
  • Colla - Luigi Aloysius Colla (1766-1848)
  • Console - Michelangelo Console (1812-1897)
  • J. M. Coulter - John Merle Coulter (1851-1928)
  • R. T. Craig - Robert T. Craig (wrote 1945)
  • Croizat - Léon Camille Marius Croizat (1894-1982)
  • Cullm. - Willy Cullmann (1905-1992)
  • Cutak - Ladislaus Cutak (1908-1973)

D

  • Dams - Erich Dams (wrote 1905)
  • Däniker - Albert Ulrich Däniker (1894-1957)
  • Daston - J. S. Daston
  • Davidson - Anstruther Davidson (1860-1932)
  • E. Y. Dawson - Elmer Yale Dawson (1918-1966)
  • DC. - Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778-1841)
  • L. Diers - L. Diers (wrote 1977 and 1980)
  • A. Dietr. - Albert Gottfried Dietrich (1795-1856)
  • Distefano - Concetto Distefano (wrote 1956)
  • Dodds - Lionel G. Dodds (wrote 1937)
  • Dölz - Bruno Dölz (†1945)
  • Donald - John Donald Donald (1923-1996)
  • Dörfl. - Ignaz Dörfler (1866-1950)
  • Dusén - Per Karl Hjalmar Dusén (1855-1926)

E

  • W. H. Earle - W. Humbert Earle (1906-1984)
  • C. Ehrenb. - Carl August Ehrenberg (1801-1849)
  • Engelm. - Georg Engelmann (1809-1884)

F

  • Farwig - S. Farwig (wrote 1987)
  • Fechser - H. Fechser (*1918)
  • Ferryman - R. M. Ferryman (wrote 1991)
  • Fittkau - Hans W. Fittkau (wrote 1971)
  • Fitz Maurice - W. A. Fitz Maurice (wrote 1992)
  • Fleischer - Z. Fleischer (1905-1978)
  • Fobe - Friedrich Fobe (†1941)
  • J. Forbes - James Forbes (1773-1861)
  • C. F. Först. - Carl Friedrich Förster (wrote 1846)
  • Foster - Robert A. Foster (*1904)
  • G. Frank - Gerhard R. W. Frank (wrote 1963-1978)
  • Fric - Alberto Vojtech Fric (1882-1944)
  • H. Friedrich - Heimo Friedrich
  • K. Friedrich - Karl Friedrich (wrote 1965,1974)
  • R. E. Fries - Klas Robert Elias Fries (1876-1966)

G

  • Gaertn. - Joseph Gaertner (1732-1791)
  • Galeotti - Henri Guillaume Galeotti (1814-1858)
  • H. E. Gates - Howard Elliott Gates (1895-1957)
  • Gay - Claude Gay (1800-1873)
  • Gerloff - Norbert Gerloff
  • Gibson
  • Gillies - John Gillies (1792-1834)
  • Glaetzle - W. Glaetzle (wrote 1983)
  • Glass - Charles Glass (*1934)
  • Gosselin - R. Roland Gosselin (1854-1925)
  • A. Gray - Asa Gray (1810-1888)
  • Greene - Edward Lee Greene (1843-1915)
  • Griseb. - August Heinrich Rudolf Grisebach (1814-1879)
  • Gürke - Robert Louis August Maximilian Gürke (1854-1911)

H

  • Haage or F. Haage - Frederick Adolph Haage (1796-1866)
  • Haage Sen. - Ferdinand Haage (1830-1921)
  • Haage Jr. - Ferdinand Haage (1859-1930)
  • Haage or W. Haage - Walther Haage (1899-1992)
  • De Haas - De Haas (wrote 1940)
  • Havlicek - Radim Havlicek
  • Haworth (Haw.) - Adrian Hardy Haworth (1767-1833)
  • Heese - Emil Heese (1862-1914)
  • Heinrich - W. Heinrich
  • Herm - Konrad Herm
  • Herter - Wilhelm Guillermo Herter (1844-1958)
  • Herter - Wilhelm Gustav Franz Herter (1884-1958)
  • D. Herzog - D. Herzog
  • Hester - J. Pinckney Hester (wrote 1943)
  • Hewitt - Florence Ellen Hewitt (1910-1979)
  • Heyder - Edward Heyder (1808-1884)
  • Hildm. - H. Hildmann (†1895)
  • A. W. Hill - Arthur William Hill (1875-1941)
  • Hofacker - Andreas Hofacker
  • A. E. Hoffmann - Adriana E. Hoffmann
  • Hooker (Hook.) - Jackson Hooker (1785-1865)
  • Hopffer - Carl Hopffer (*1810)
  • Horak
  • Hosseus - Carl Kurt Hosseus (1878-1950)
  • Houghton - Arthur Duvernoix Houghton (1870-1938)
  • H. B. K. - Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Humboldt (1769-1859)
  • D. R. Hunt - David Richard Hunt (*1938)
  • Hutchison - Paul Clifford Hutchison (*1924)

 I

  • Y. Itô (Ito) - Yoshi Itô (*1907)

J

  • Jacobi - Georg Albano von Jacobi (1805-1874)
  • H. Jacobsen - Hermann Johannes Heinrich Jacobsen (1898-1978)
  • Jajó - Bedrich Jajó (wrote 1947)
  • Jahn - E. Jahn
  • V. John - Volker John (*1952)
  • H. Johnson - H. Johnson

K

  • H. Karst. - Gustav Karl Wilhelm Hermann Karsten (1817-1908)
  • Karw. - Wilhelm Friedrich von Karwinsky von Karwin (1780-1855)
  • Kattermann - Fred Kattermann (wrote 1994)
  • K. Kayser - Konrad Kayser (wrote 1932)
  • Kesselr. - F. W. Kesselring (1876-1966)
  • R. Kiesling - Roberto Kiesling (*1941)
  • Kimnach - Myron William Kimnach (*1922)
  • Kladiwa - Leo Kladiwa (1920-1988)
  • Klein - Klein (wrote 1859)
  • Knize - Karel Knize
  • F. M. Knuth - Frederik Markus Knuth von Knuthenborg (1904-1970)
  • U. Köhler - Udo Köhler (1911-1983)
  • Kolarik - Jiri Kolarik
  • Königs - Güunter Königs
  • Krähenbühl - Felix Krähenbühl
  • Krahn - Wolfgang Krahn (*1939)
  • Krainz - Hans Krainz (1906-1980)
  • Kreuzinger (Kreuz.) - Kurt G. Kreuzinger (1905-1989)
  • Kunth - Karl Sigismund Kunth (1788-1850)
  • Kuntze - Carl Ernst Eduard Otto Kuntze (1843-1907)
  • Kupper - Walter Kupper (1874-1953)

L

  • L. - Carl von Linné (1707-1778)
  • Labouret (Labour.) - J. Labouret (wrote 1853-1858)
  • Lag. - Mariano Lagasca y Segura (1776-1839)
  • Lagerh. - Nils Gustav Lagerheim (1860-1926)
  • Lahman - Berta Marion Lahman (*1872)
  • Lam. - Jean Baptiste Antoine Pierre de Monnet de Lamarck (1744-1829)
  • A. B. Lau - Alfred B. Lau (wrote 1940-1980)
  • G. Lawr. - Georg Lawrence (wrote 1841)
  • Lehmann (Lehm.) - Johann Georg Christian Lehmann (1792-1860)
  • Lemaire (Lem.) - Antoine Charles Lemaire (1801-1871)
  • Lembcke - Hans Lembcke (*1918)
  • Liebner - C. Liebner (wrote 1895)
  • Lindl. - John Lindley (1799-1865)
  • G. E. Linds. - Georg Edmund Lindsay (*1916)
  • Link - Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link (1767-1851)
  • Lisal - Kamil Lisal
  • G. Lodd. - George Loddiges (1784-1846)
  • Loefgr. - Johan Alberto Constantin Loefgren (1854-1918)
  • Looser - Gualtiero Looser (1898-1982)
  • Luetzelb. - Philipp von Luetzelburg (1880-1948)

M

  • J. F. Macbr. - James Francis Macbridge (1892-1976)
  • T. Macdoug. - Thomas Baillie MacDougall (1895-1973)
  • Marchesi - Eduardo Marchesi
  • Marn.-Lap. - Julien Marnier-Lapostolle (1902-1976)
  • W. T. Marshall - William Taylor Marshall (1886-1957)
  • Mart. - Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1794-1868)
  • Meyen - Franz Julius Ferdinand Meyen (1804-1840)
  • J. Meyrán - Jorge Meyrán (*1918)
  • Mill. - Philip Miller (1691-1771)
  • Miq. - Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel (1811-1871)
  • Monville (Monv.) - M. Chevalier de Monville
  • H. E. Moore - Harold Emery Moore (1917-1980)
  • T. Moore - Thomas Moore (1821-1887)
  • W. O. Moore - Winifred Olivia Moore (*1904)
  • Moran - Reid Venable Moran (*1916)
  • E. Morren - Charles Jacques Édouard Morren (1833-1886)
  • Muehlenpf. - Fr. Muehlenpfordt (wrote 1849-1891)

N

  • Nicolai - Ernst August Nicolai (1800-1874)
  • Nutt. - Thomas Nuttall (1786-1859)

O

  • Oehme - Hanns Oehme (†1944)
  • Oosten - M. W. B. van Oosten (wrote 1840)
  • Orcutt - Charles Russel Orcutt (1864-1929)
  • J. G. Ortega - Jesús Gonzales Ortega (1876-1936)
  • Osten - Cornelius Osten
  • Otto - Christoph Friedrich Otto (1783-1856)

P

  • Papousek - K. Papousek
  • Pazout - Frantisek Pazout
  • Pfeiffer - Louis Pfeiffer (1805-1878)
  • Prestlé -Karl Heinz Prestlé
  • Palmer - Edward Palmer (1831-1911)
  • Parm. - Antoine-Auguste Parmentier (1737-1813)
  • Parry - Charles Christopher Parry (1823-1890)
  • Patoni - Charles Patoni (wrote 1910)
  • Pfeiff. - Louis Ludwig Karl Georg Pfeiffer (1805-1877)
  • Phil. - Rudolf Amandus Philippi (1808-1904)
  • Pilbeam - John Pilbeam
  • D. M. Porter - Duncan McNair Porter (*1937)
  • Porto - Paulo Campos Porto (*1889)
  • Poselg. - Heinrich Poselger (1818-1883)
  • J. A. Purpus - Joseph Anton Purpus (1860-1932)

Q

  • Quehl - Leopold Quehl (1849 - 1922)

R

  • Raf. - Constantine Samuel Rafinesque (1783-1840)
  • Rauh - Werner Rauh (*1913)
  • Rausch - Walter Rausch (*1928)
  • Rauschert - Stephan Rauschert (1931-1986)
  • F. Rchb. - F. Reichenbach (wrote 1896)
  • Rebut - P. Rebut (May 14th, 1827-1898)
  • Redecker - G. Redecker (1902-1975)
  • Regel - Eduard August von Regel (1815-1892)
  • Rémy - Esprit Alexandre Rémy (1826-1893)
  • Repp. - Werner Reppenhagen (*1911)
  • Riccob. - Vincenzo Riccobono (1861-1943)
  • Ríha - Jan Ríha (*1947)
  • F. Ritter - Friedrich Ritter (1898-1989)
  • Rodr. - José Demetrio Rodríguez (1780-1846)
  • Rogoz. - H. Rogozinski (wrote 1985)
  • Rose - Joseph Nelson Rose (1862-1928)
  • G. D. Rowley - Gordon Douglas Rowley (*1921)
  • Rümpler - Karl Theodor Rümpler (1817-1891)
  • Runge - C. Runge (wrote 1889)

S

  • Saff. - William Edwin Safford (1859-1926)
  • Salisb. - Richard Anthony Salisbury (1761-1829)
  • Salm-Dyck - Joseph Franz Maria Anton Hubert Ignatz Fürst zu Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck (1773-1861)
  • Sanchez-Mej. - Hernando Sanchez-Mejorado (1926-1988)
  • Sand. - Henry Frederick Conrad Sander (1847-1920)
  • Scheer - Friedrich Scheer (1792-1868)
  • Scheidw. - Michael Joseph François Scheidweiler (1799-1861)
  • Scheinvar - Leia Scheinvar (wrote 1974)
  • Schelle - Ernst Schelle (1864-1945)
  • Schlosser - Hugo Selmar Schlosser
  • F. Schmoll - Ferdinand Schmoll (†1950)
  • Schott - Heinrich Wilhelm Schott (1794-1865)
  • Schäfer - Gerhardt Schäfer
  • Schütz - Bohumil Schütz (1903-1993)
  • Schumann (K. Schum.) - Karl Moritz Schumann (1851-1904)
  • Sencke - Ferdinand Sencke (wrote 1830-1866)
  • Shurly - Ernest William Shrurly (1888-1963)
  • Slaba - Rudolf Slaba (wrote 1985) View Page
  • Söhrens - Johannes Söhrens (†1934)
  • Solms - Hermann Maximilian Carl Ludwig Friedrich zu Solms-Laubach (1842-1915)
  • Spegazzini (Speg.) - Carlos Luigi Spegazzini (1858-1926)
  • Sprengel (Spreng.) - Curt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel (1766-1833)
  • Stearn - William Thomas Stearn (*1911)
  • Steeg - M. G. van der Steeg (wrote 1960)
  • Stein - Berthold Stein (1847-1899)
  • Steud. - Ernst Gottlieb von Steudel (1783-1856)
  • Swales - G. J. Swales (wrote 1978)
  • Sweet - Robert Sweet (1783-1835)

T

  • N. P. Taylor - Nigel Paul Taylor (*1956)
  • Terschek - Terschek (wrote 1840)
  • Theunissen - Sjef Theunissen
  • P. Thiele - Peter Thiele (wrote 1963)
  • H. J. Thompson - Henry Joseph Thompson (*1921)
  • Tiegel - E. Tiegel (†1936)
  • Tjaden - William Louis Tjaden (*1913)
  • Torr. - John Torrey (1796-1873)
  • Toumey - James William Toumey (1865-1932)
  • Turpin - Pierre Jean François Turpin (1775-1840)

U

  • G. Unger - Gottfried Unger (wrote 1984)

V

  • Van Vliet - Dirk Jan van Vliet (wrote 1969)
  • Vaupel - Friedrich Karl Johann Vaupel (1876-1927)
  • Vell. - José Mariano da Conceiçao Vellozo (1742-1811)
  • Voll - Otto Voll (1884-1958)

W

  • K. Wagner - Klaus Wagner (1935-1987)
  • Walp. - Wilhelm Gerhard Walpers (1816-1853)
  • Walton - Frederick Arthur Walton (1853-1922)
  • S. Watson - Sereno Watson (1826-1892)
  • F. A. C. Weber - Frédéric Albert Constantin Weber (1830-1903)
  • Weidlich - E. Weidlich (wrote 1928)
  • Weing. - Wilhelm Weingart (1856-1936)
  • H. F. Wendl. - Heinrich Ludolf Wendland (1792-1869)
  • Werdermann (Werderm.) - Erich Werdermann (1892-1959)
  • Wessner - Wilhelm Wessner (1904-1983)
  • Wiggins - Ira Loren Wiggins (1899-1987)
  • Willd. - Carl Ludwig von Willdenow (1765-1812)

Z

  • Zappi - Daniela Zappi (wrote 1991)
  • Allan D. Zimmerman - (wrote 1991)
  • Zucc. - Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini (1797-1848)

 

 

 


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